I found this in my youtube feed. It shows how a important part of minecraft is made within a week in c++ and opengl. In the video (below) the author of this project roughly mentions what needs to be done. In the video page a link to the exe and github(code) is located.
On https://www.udemy.com/ there is a course that teaches you how to program a minecraft clone. 6 hours of video and unity project files. Catch is: It costs money, it is for unity using c#.
I got a deal at 11 euro that the site sometimes seems to offer.
There is a whole lot of information given that is useable for other languages as well. The quality of the course is pretty good. Triangles to Quads to blocks, Chunks, infitine worlds, caves, blocktypes etc. A proffessor talks you all the way through the programming and theory.
If you can get the same low price deal and would like to learn minecraft yourself then I can really advice this course.
After getting through the course I am a little bit dissapointed. There is a lot explained but the featured minecraft is not that good. There were some problems getting the project to compile in unity. Not everything works. The course will get a free(?) update in 2018. For the full price I can not say it would be a good buy.